Document Type : Narrative Review
Department of Chemistry, College of Education, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Zoonoses Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Kurdistan, Iran
Department of Neuroscience and Addiction Studies, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Ministry of Education, General Directorate for Education in Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
Student Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
Bioactive compounds isolated from medicinal plant species can synergize therapeutic properties of conventional drugs. At this regard, improved biocompatibility and bioavailability have been obtained. Carvacrol as a monoterpenic phenol has pharmacologic features including antimicrobial, anticancer, antineurodegenerative activities and antioxidant properties toward periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus. This metabolite can be applied to reducing inflammation and oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol has anticancer activity by induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Growth inhibition of bacteria, fungi, and viruses can be possible by this metabolite in a dose-dependent way. In the case of diabetes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes were inhibited by carvacrol. In this review, we have provided recent advances and challenges for formulations of this bioactive compound in both nano and micro scales. In this way, loading carvacrol by lipid and polymeric nanocarriers exhibited effective therapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro.
- Carvacrol can be regarded as an effective antioxidant to reducing inflammation and oxidative stress caused by ROS production in neurodegenerative diseases.
- Carvacrol leads to neuroprotective effect on hippocampal neurons injury by increasing the expression of PKCα.
- Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells was found for this compound as the main anticancer mechanism.
- Growth of fungi can be blocked by the reduction of ergosterol synthesis in fungal cell membrane in a dose-dependent way.
- Changing the structural and functional properties of cytoplasmatic membrane and anti-desiccation resistance has been found as the major antibacterial mechanisms of carvacrol.
- Nanoformulation of carvacrol can improve its release behavior in aqueous media.