Document Type : Narrative Review
Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran Nanobiotechnology Department, Faculty of Innovative Science and Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Translational Type 1 Diabetes Research, Department of Clinical Research, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Borgmester Ib Juuls Vej 83, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark
Severe side effects of chemotherapeutic and anti-diabetic drugs for cancer cells and type 2 diabetes (T2D) type and emerging drug resistance in pathogenic microorganisms, specifically bacteria, are the main barriers to achieving desired therapeutic results. Various antimicrobial and anticancer functions involve damaging cell membranes by direct contact with metal or metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), inhibition of biofilm, formation of free radicals and nonradicals of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), inducing host immune responses, and denaturation biological macromolecules such as nucleic acids and protein have been found for metal or metal oxide NPs. The major one is the production of ROS, including peroxides (*O2−2), superoxide (*O2−), hydroperoxyl (HO2*), hydroxyl radical (HO*), and singlet oxygen (1O2*), as well as RNS such as peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and nitric oxide (NO*) under the oxidative stress via release of metal ions from NPs. Oxidative stress can result from the elevation of ROS more than the buffering capacity. ROS and RNS can cause lipid peroxidation, oxidative protein carbonylation, and inactivation of specific enzymes. This review shows that controlling the dose of ROS and specific targeting is for achieving promising anticancer and antimicrobial results in physiological conditions.
- ROS production by metal and metal oxide NPs represents a double-edged sword in diseases therapy.
- Disrupting cell membrane or cell wall by direct contact with NPs, inhibiting and damaging biofilm integrity, formation of free radicals and nonradicals of ROS and RNS, inducing host immune responses, and denaturation of biological macromolecules such as nucleic acids and protein have been found for metal or metal oxide NPs.
- NP-treated coli exhibited ROS generation by 2.5 times higher than H2O2-treated E. coli and 5 times more than the untreated bacteria.
- The oxidative stress resulting from ROS and RNS can down-regulate the process in apoptotic genes and cause programmed cell death due to intracellular leakages in the mitochondrial membrane.
- Moderate ROS levels and massive accumulation of ROS induce tumorigenesis and cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, and ferroptosis pathway, respectively.