Document Type : Mini-Review
Institute for Micromanufacturing, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, USA
College of Applied and Natural Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, USA.
College of Applied and Natural Sciences, Louisiana, Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, USA.
Saponins as glycoside type of pentacyclic triterpenoids comprising an aglycone (triterpenoid component) and glycone (sugar moiety) are acknowledged phytochemicals with various pharmaceutical and nutritional activities as natural additives in food and cosmetic sections. These amphiphilic molecules and their derivatives have shown numerous therapeutic and nutritional benefits. Antioxidant, anticancer, hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, anti-asthmatic, and antimicrobial effects have been found for saponins and their derivatives such as furostanol saponin as the main therapeutic potential along with low cytotoxicity. In the case of the nanotechnology aspect, these emulsifiers are significantly employed to stabilize and produce nanoemulsions. However, the bioavailability and stability of these glycoside metabolites are affected by the processing method owing to the changes between the linkages of glycone chains and aglycones. Organic nanomaterials such as lipidic and polymeric nanomaterials may be promising nanocarriers for increasing the bioavailability and stability of saponins, we have reviewed recent findings about this issue focusing on cosmetic, nutritional, and pharmaceutical potentials.
- Many singling pathways such as PKB/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RNF6/AKT/mTOR, and EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathways are blocked by saponins.
- The permeability of bacterial cell membranes and influx the antibiotics through the bacterial membrane can be enhanced by saponins.
- Dietary saponins can hinder the function of pancreatic lipase and fatty liver formation.
- The growth of acnes bacteria is inhibited by the saponins.