Modification of silica nanoparticles for antibacterial activities: mechanism of action

Opening up a new avenue for smart design of nanomaterials by antibacterial agents such as antibiotics, metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), and polymeric materials to achieve high efficiency against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria as a vital affair in the case of chronic bacterial infections specifically diabetic foot ulcer, pneumonia, and pseudomonas infections. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) NPs with a biocompatible and porous surface can be applied as a novel, efficient carriers for loading other antibacterial compounds having low biocompatibility or ineffective antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Recently, modification or functionalization of silica NPs by conventional antibiotics, metal/metal oxide NPs and biodegradable polymers have been investigated to increase the bactericidal and mechanical properties for wound dressings and bone cement. However, there is no clear comprehension of the advantages and disadvantages of these drug delivery systems, which this review has tried to address (Reference).